Chardrayaan-1 is the first Indian Mission to the Moon devoted to high-resolution remote sensing of the lunar surface features in visible, near infrared, X-ray and low energy gamma ray regions. This will be accomplished using several payloads already selected for the mission. In addition a total of about 10 kg payload weight and 10 W power are earmarked for proposals, which are now solicited. The mission is proposed to be a lunar polar orbiter at an altitude of about 100 km and is planned to be launched by october 2008 using indigenous spacecraft and launch vehicle of ISRO. The mission is expected to have an operational life of about 2 years.

1.The remote sensing satellite will weigh 1304 kg (590 kg initial orbit mass and 504 kg dry mass)

2.The project is led by Mylswamy Annadurai as Project Chief.

3.The spacecraft is scheduled for launch on October 22 with a window fixed between October 19 and October 28

4.The estimated cost of the project is about INR 3.8 billion (US$ 83 million).

5.There would be four to five major launches including the launch of Indo-French joint mission of ‘Megha Tropiques’ (satellites relating to atmosphere physics metrology).

6.The mission includes five ISRO payloads and six payloads from other international space agencies such as NASA and ESA, and the Bulgarian Aerospace Agency .

7.In addition, a radar imaging satellite called Risat, astronomy satellite, Astrosat besides two commercial launches are also scheduled.


* Carry out high resolution mapping of topographic features in 3D, distribution of various minerals and elemental chemical species including radioactive nuclides covering the entire lunar surface using a set of remote sensing payloads. The new set of data would help in unravelling mysteries about the origin and evolution of solar system in general and that of the moon in particular.

* Realize the mission goal of harnessing the science payloads, lunar craft and the launch vehicle with suitable ground support system including DSN station, integration and testing, launching and achieving lunar orbit of ~100 km, in-orbit operation of experiments, communication/telecommand, telemetry data reception, quick look data and archival for scientific utilization by identified group of scientists.

9.Specific areas of study

*High resolution mineralogical and chemical imaging of permanently shadowed north and south polar regions

*Search for surface or sub-surface water-ice on the moon, specially at lunar pole

*Identification of chemical end members of lunar high land rocks

*Chemical stratigraphy of lunar crust by remote sensing of central upland of large lunar craters, South Pole Aitken Region (SPAR) etc., where interior material may be expected

*To map the height variation of the lunar surface features along the satellite track

* Observation of X-ray spectrum greater than 10 keV and stereographic coverage of most of the moon’s surface with 5 m resolution, to provide new insights in understanding the moon’s origin and evolution

10.The scientific payload has a total mass of 90 kg and contains six Indian instruments and six foreign instruments.

11.Instruments are
a.The Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC).
b.The Hyper Spectral Imager (HySI)
c.The Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI)
d.An X-ray fluorescence spectrometer C1XS and Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM)
e.A High Energy X-ray/gamma ray spectrometer (HEX)
f.Moon Impact probe(MIP)
Foreign Instruments

g.The Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA)
h.The Moon Mineralogy Mapper
i.A near infrared spectrometer (SIR-2)
j.S-band miniSAR
k.Radiation Dose Monitor (RADOM-7)


It will take about 5½ days for Chandrayaan-1 to get to the Moon

Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft will be in a 100 km polar orbit around the Moon.

it can establish contact with controllers on Earth through the Deep Space Network.

The spacecraft is mainly powered by its solar array, which includes one solar panel covering a total area of 2.15 X 1.8 square meters, generating 700W power. The panels are made of materials rated to withstand extreme temperatures ~ 119 ºC to –165 ºC. The power produced by the solar array is stored in a Lithium-ion battery, and then distributed from the battery to the spacecraft subsystems. The power system is designed to support various phases of the mission. The power will supplement the mission with equal efficiency in both noon/midnight and dawn/dusk orbits. The power system consists of power generation, energy storage and power conditioning elements. 36AH Li-Ion battery powers the spacecraft during orbital and lunar eclipses. Power electronics system controls the solar array power to supply the load and charge the batteries.

The moon undergoes extremes in temperature — it is scorching hot at 130 º C during the day and freezing cold at –180 º C during night.

The budgetary estimate for realising the proposed Indian lunar mission Chandrayaan-1 stands at Rs. 386.00 crores (about $76 million). This includes Rs. 53.00 crores (about $11 million) for Payload development, Rs. 83.00 crores (about $17 million) for Spacecraft Bus, Rs. 100.00 crores ($20 million) towards establishment of Deep Space Network, Rs. 100.00 crores ($20 million) for PSLV launch vehicle and Rs. 50.00 crores ($10 million) for scientific data centre, external network support and programme management expenses.

Read More – Wikipedia

Read More – ISRO

3 Responses


  2. why dont you guys use this money to develop your nation?

  3. the web needs more sites like this. I will visit again

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