1.The Indian Army is the world’s second largest army in terms of military personnel (after China).

Active Troops                                               1,300,000
Reserve Troops                                           1,200,000
Territorial Army                                        200,000
Main Battle Tanks                                   4500
Artillery                                                          12,800
Ballistic missiles                                      100+
Cruise missiles                                          BrahMos
Aircraft                                                           10 squadrons of helicopters
Surface-to-air missiles                        90000+

The Pakistan Army, combined with the Navy and Air Force, makes Pakistan’s armed forces the seventh largest military in the world.

Army                                                      550,000
Navy                                                       24,000
Air Force                                             45,000
Paramilitary Forces                   302,000
Coast Guard                                     Classified
Total                                                    921,000

2. Nuclear doctrine ( INDIA )

The Indian military possesses nuclear weapons and sufficient means — by means of missiles and aircraft — to deliver anything over long distances. However, India has a nuclear no-first-use and no use against non-nuclear weapons state policy. It also maintains a non-nuclear doctrine based on credible minimum deterrence. India is not a signatory to the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT), arguing that it unfairly favours the established nuclear powers: While the treaty places restrictions on the non-nuclear weapons states, it does little to curb the modernization and expansion of the nuclear arsenals of the nuclear weapons states; it provides no provision for complete nuclear disarmament.

Nuclear Doctrine ( PAKISTAN )

The Pakistan military possesses nuclear weapons and sufficient means, through a range of missiles and aircraft — to deliver these over considerably long distances. However, unlike India, Pakistan does not have no-first-use policy and maintains the use of nuclear weapons as a deterrent to India to offset the large conventional advantage India enjoys over Pakistan.

Pakistan is not a part of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT), citing concerns that it unfairly favours the established nuclear powers, and provides no provision for complete nuclear disarmament. The Strategic Nuclear Command forms part of Pakistan’s National Command Authority which is responsible for the management of the country’s tactical and strategic nuclear weapons.



  • FN Browning GP35 9mmx19 mm
  • SAF (Small Arms Factory) Pistol 1A 9mmx19 mm, This is more or less a copy of the Canadian Inglis 9 mm
  • Glock 17 9mmx19 mm, The Glock 19 along with the 17 is in use with the Special Protection Group (Prime Minister’s Security)

Sub-machine guns and carbines

  • Heckler & Koch MP5A3 9mmx19 mm SMG
  • Heckler & Koch MP5K 9mmx19 mm SMG
  • SAF Carbine 1A 9mmx19 mm, Indian made Sterling L2A1 SMG
  • SAF Carbine 2A1 9mmx19 mm, Silenced Carbine
  • UZI 9mmx19 mm SMG
  • MINSAS carbine of the INSAS family; 5.56mm. Is in user trails.
  • Kalantak rifle PDW that is in user trails.

Assault rifles

  • RFI (Rifle Factory,Ishapore) SLR1A 7.62mmx51 mm NATO Assault Rifle, A modified FN FAL, This old work horse has now more or less been retired from IA service, most going to the police and paramilitary forces after reconditioning. Some however, remain in use.
  • RFI SLR1C 7.62mmx51 mm, full Automatic variant of the SLR for use in APCs
  • AK-7, clone of the AK-47
  • INSAS 5.56mmx45 mm Assault Rifle
  • Kalantak Rifle Under Trials
  • Zittara Indian version of the IMI Tavor TAR-21 Israeli Micro-Tavor
  • TAVOR TAR-21 5.56mmx45 mm, for special forces currently 3070 have been purchased from Israel [1]
  • IMI Galil
  • AK-101
  • AK-103
  • KBK AKMS 7.62mmx39 mm, Polish AKS47-3
  • AK47M1 7.62mmx39 mm, all black Bulgarian AK. Most of these have been imported for police and paramilitary forces
  • Soviet AKM AKMS 7.62mmx39 mm
  • East German MPi-KM MPi-KMS72 7.62mmx39 mm (Second hand)
  • Czech Vz.58 and Vz.58P 7.62mmx39 mm
  • Colt M16A2 rifle for special forces

Anti-Tank Guided Missiles

  • Nag- Third Generation fire and forget IIR Guided ATGM developed Indigenously. Its undergoing user trials. 443 missiles ordered.
  • Milan 2- License Produced
  • 9M113 Konkurs (AT-5 Spandrel)
  • 9M111 Fagot (AT-4 Spigot)
  • 9M14 Malyutka (AT-3 Sagger)– Being Phased out
  • 9M119 Svir (AT-11 Sniper)– for T-90S.
  • Lahat- fired from Arjun Tanks 120mm Cannon.

Machine guns

  • MG 1B 7.62mmx51 mm, Indian made Bren- This is currently being retired. But may remain a while longer because of teething problems with its successor, the INSAS LMG
  • MG 2A1 7.62mmx51 mm, Indian made MAG 58
  • MG 5A 7.62mmx51 mm This is the Indian manufactured Co-axial MAG 58
  • MG 6A 7.62mmx51 mm Another Indian version of the MAG58 specifically designed as a tank commanders gun.
  • INSAS 5.56mmx45 mm LMG
  • FN-Browning M1919 .30Cal, in very limited quantities
  • Browning M2 machine gun .50cal, heavy machine gun in very limited numbers
  • M607.62mm LMG




Su-30MKI Flanker-H                           100

Mirage 2000H                                        39

MiG-29SMT                                             56

Jaguar IS                                                  104(IS)

Jaguar IM                                                  6

MiG-27                                                     ML 120

MiG-21 Bison                                         109

MiG-21bis 48

MiG-21M/MF                                        72


Chengdu JF-17 Thunder 10

General Dynamics F-16A Block-15 Fighting Falcon 28

General Dynamics F-16B Block-15 Fighting Falcon 16

Chengdu F-7PG Skybolt 46

Chengdu F-7MP Skybolt                                                                  90

Chengdu FT-7P Skybolt                                                                  15

Dassault Mirage ROSE-II (Mirage-VDF)                                   6

Dassault Mirage ROSE-II (Mirage-VDF)                                  14

Nanchang Q-5/A-5C Fantan                                                         40

Both India And Pakistan Has many transport vehicles for the movement of man and machines.

Both side has many Light Combat aircrafts but in this Sense India is much powerfull than Pakistan.

The Indian Air Force is the fourth largest air force in the world. In its history, it has generally relied on Soviet, British, Israeli and French technology to support its growth. However, in recent times, India has begun building its own original aircraft, including the HAL Tejas, which is a 4.5th generation fighter. Also, India and Russia are currently building a 5th generation stealth aircraft jointly. India has also developed an UAV called Nishant and an advanced light helicopter called the HAL Dhruv. Recently, it completed a test of a long range BVR air to air missile named Astra and also conducted a successful test of its anti-ballistic missile defense system and hence became the 4th country after the US, Russia, and Israel to do so.


Ballistic Missiles

a. Prithvi I – Army Version (150 km range with a payload of 1,000kg)

Prithvi II – Air Force Version (250 km range with a payload of 500kg)

Prithvi III – Naval Version (350 km range with a payload of 500kg)

b. Dhanush is a System consisting of stabilization platform and missiles and can fire either the 250Km or the 350Km range missiles.

Then the following year in December the missile’s 350Km version was tested from the INS Rajput and hit the land based target

c.The Agni Missile system comprises of Agni I, Agni II and the Agni III 1500 Agni I uses the SLV-3 booster (from India’s Space Program) for its first stage and a liquid-fueled Prithvi for its second stage.

d.On the other hand India’s Agni II missiles have a range of the 1500 to 2500 kilometers. Unlike the Agni I, the Agni II has a solid-fueled second stage. India has also tested the Agni III IRBM with a range between 3000 and 5500km kilometres which has two stages. With a normal payload of 1000kg it can travel 5000km

e.The Surya-1 and -2 will be classified as strategic weapons, extending the Indian nuclear deterrent force to targets around the world. India currently is limited by the range of the Agni-3 missile.

The Surya-1 will have an expected range of 6000 – 10,000 km. It reportedly has a length of 40 m and a launch weight of 80,000 kg (some reports indicate as much as 275,000 kg. As the missile has yet to be developed, the payload and warhead are as yet unknown. It is believed to be a three-stage design, with the first two stages using solid propellants and the third-stage using liquid. The first test flight is expected in 2009, but there may be delays. The Surya- is a longer-ranged variant of the Surya-1. It has a reported range of over 20,000 km.

f.The Shaurya missile is a short-range surface-to-surface ballistic missile developed by DRDO of India for use by the Indian Army.It has a range of 600 km and is capable of carrying a payload of one-tonne conventional or nuclear warhead.The Shaurya missile provides India with a significant second strike capability.

g.Sagarika is a nuclear capable submarine-launched ballistic missile with a range of 750 km. This missile has a length of 8.5 meters, weighs seven tonnes and can carry a pay load of up to 500 kg


a.Nirbhay is a long range, subsonic cruise missile being developed in India. The missile will have a range of 1000 km and will arm three services, the Indian Army, Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force.

b.India has acquired around 200 3M-54 Klub for arming Talwar class frigate, Shivalik class frigate, Kolkata class destroyer and Sindhughosh class submarine The Russian 3M-54 Klub is a multi-role missile system developed by the Novator Design Bureau(OKB-8) with a range of 250Km-300Km and a average speed of .8 Mach with a maximum of 2.9 Mach

c.Popeye II, an air launched cruise missile capable of carrying nuclear warheads with a range of 80 Km can be launched from planes was given to India along with missile defence radars in a deal.

The exact number transferred to India is unknown, but possibly 20 missile to perhaps 50 missiles could have been given with possibly more being built in India.

d.India has Soviet P-70 Ametist submarine-launched cruise missiles.

The missiles can carry nuclear warheads and have a range of 50-65Km.

e.The P-270 Moskit is a Russian supersonic ramjet powered cruise missile capable of being launched from land and ships. India has most probably bought both land and ship variants which have a range of 120km.

f.Akash is India’s medium range surface-to-air missile defense system The missile can target aircraft up to 30 km away, at altitudes up to 18,000 m.Akash is said to be capable of both conventional and nuclear warheads, with a reported payload of 60kg. Akash can be fired from both tracked and wheeled platforms.

Nuclear Submarines

According to some accounts India plans to have as many as 20 nuclear submarines capable of carrying missiles with nuclear warheads.

The Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) is a Nuclear Powered Ballistic Missile Submarine being constructed for the Indian Navy at Visakhapatnam, India The ATV is an SSBN and will be armed with the ballistic missiles. Once it is completed, it can be equipped with 6-8 nuclear capable Dhanush,Sagarika or Agni SLBM ballistic missiles and upto 12 BrahMos cruise missiles. It is also to be fitted with an advanced sonar system. The second and third submarines of the class may incorporate the Nirbhay as well. As of July 2007, the Sagarika missile as well as Dhanush had undergone three successful tests each. The ATV is to be unveiled on January 26, 2009 but trials will start later that year while induction is planned for 2010.

The INS Sindhuraj, INS Sindhuvir, INS Sindhuratna, INS Sindhushastra, INS Sindhukesari and INS Sindhuvijay are capable of launching 3M-54 Klub and BrahMos nuclear-capable cruise missiles. India bought 10 Kilo class (in India known as Sindhughosh Class) submarine of which 6 have been refitted by the Russian Navy so that the they can launch cruise missiles such as nuclear capable BrahMos and 3M-54 Klub’s 3M-14E variant. The Submarine version of the BrahMos has been tested from static, underwater test stands in Russia and from the INS Sindhuvijay. As the Sinduvijay is similar to the other refitted submarines the test is considered a success.


  • Hatf-I/IA/IB BRBM
  • Abdali-I SRBM
  • Ghaznavi-I SRBM
  • Shaheen-I MRBM
  • Ghauri-I MRBM
  • Ghauri-II IRBM
  • Shaheen-II IRBM
  • Babur Cruise Missile
  • Ra’ad Cruise Missile
  • Ghauri-III IRBM
  • Shaheen-III IRBM
  • Tippu missile ICBM


  • K-8 Karakorum
  • JF-17 Thunder
  • Shahbaz
  • MFI-395 Super Mushaq
  • MFI-17 Mushaq


  • Agosta 90B class submarine
  • Cosmos class MG110 Mini-Sub

* 4 RAPID (Reorganised Army Plains Infantry Divisions)
* 18 Infantry Divisions
* 10 Mountain Divisions
* 3 Armoured Divisions
* 2 Artillery Divisions
* 6 Air Defence Brigades + 2 Surface-to-Air Missile Groups
* 5 Independent Armoured Brigades
* 15 Independent Artillery Brigades
* 7 Independent Infantry Brigades
* 1 Parachute Brigade
* 4 Engineer Brigades
* 14 Army Aviation Helicopter Units


* 63 Tank Regiments
* 7 Airborne Battalions
* 200 Artillery Regiments
* 360 Infantry Battalions + 5 Para (SF) Battalions
* 40 Mechanised Infantry Battalions
* 20 Combat Helicopter Units
* 35+ Air Defence Regiments

Till now india and pakistan have fought four main wars and India Has defeated pakistan EveryTime.


Since their sepration in 1947 India and Pakistan have fought many wars ; sometime bigger and many time smaller.

All these wars have created a bitterness in their relations and a situation of Cold war is prevailing.

Lets have an idea of the wars fought between them and what both the nations have learned.

THE KASHMIR WAR (  October 21, 1947 – December 31, 1948 )

1. The Kashmir conflict refers to the territorial dispute between India and Pakistan (and between India and the People’s Republic of China) over Kashmir, the northwesternmost region of the Indian subcontinent.

2.The main issue between india and pakistan was the entire erstwhile Dogra princely state of Jammu and Kashmir.Offically India says Kashmir is an “integral part” of India,while the official stated stance of Pakistan is that Kashmir is a disputed territory whose final status can only be determined by the Kashmiri people.


In 1947, the British dominion of India came to an end with the creation of two new nations, India and Pakistan. Each of the 562 Indian princely statesIndia or the Dominion of Pakistan. Jammu and Kashmir had a predominantly Muslim population but a Hindu ruler, and was the largest of these autonomous states and bordered both modern countries. Its ruler was the Dogra King (or Maharaja) Hari Singh. Hari Singh preferred to remain independent and sought to avoid the stress placed on him by either India and Pakistan by playing each against the other. joined one of the two new nations: the Union of

In October 1947, Pakistani tribalsentered Kashmir with the hope to liberate it from Dogra rule. The state forces were not able to withstand the invasion and the Maharaja signed The Instrument of Accession that was accepted by the Government of India on October 27, 1947.

4.This war has been split into ten stages by time. The individual stages are detailed below.

a. Initial invasion (Operation Gulmarg) :

The objective of the initial invasion was to capture control of the Kashmir valley including its principal city, Srinagar, the summer capital of the state (Jammu being the winter capital). The state forces stationed in the border regions around Muzzafrabad and Domel were quickly defeated by AZK forces (some state forces mutinied and joined the AZK) and the way to the capital was open. Rather than advancing toward Srinagar before state forces could regroup or be reinforced, the invading forces remained in the captured cities in the border region engaging in looting and other crimes against their inhabitants.The conflict was mired by acts of sabotage, arsonrape and other crimes committed against the native Kashmiris by Pakistani-backed tribals.In the Punch valley, the state forces retreated into towns where they were besieged. and

b. Indian defence of the Kashmir Valley:

After the accession, India airlifted troops and equipment to Srinagar, where they reinforced the princely state forces, established a defense perimeter and defeated the AZK forces on the outskirts of the city. The successful defence included an outflanking manoeuvre by Indian armoured cars. The defeated AZK forces were pursued as far as Baramula and Uri and these towns were recaptured.

In the Punch valley, AZK forces continued to besiege state forces.

In Gilgit, the state paramilitary forces (the Gilgit Scouts) joined the invading AZK forces, who thereby obtained control of this northern region of the state. The AZK forces were also joined by troops from Chitral, whose ruler, the Mehtar of Chitral, had acceded to Pakistan.

c. Attempted link-up at Punch Indian forces ceased pursuit of AZK forces after recapturing Uri and Baramula, and sent a relief column southwards, in an attempt to relieve Punch. Although the relief column eventually reached Punch, the siege could not be lifted. A second relief column reached Kotli, but was forced to evacuate its garrison. Meanwhile, Mirpur was captured by AZK forces and many of its inhabitants, particularly the Hindus, were killed.

d. Fall of Jhanger and attacks on Naoshera and Uri : The Pakistani/AZK forces attacked and captured Jhanger. They then attacked Naoshera unsuccessfully. Other Pakistani/AZK forces made a series of unsuccessful attacks on Uri. In the south a minor Indian attack secured Chamb. By this stage of the war the front line began to stabilise as more Indian troops became available

e. Operation Vijay: counterattack to Jhanger : The Indian forces launched a counterattack in the south recapturing Jhanger and Rajauri. In the Kashmir Valley the Pakistani/AZK forces continued attacking the Uri garrison. In the north Skardu was brought under siege by Pakistani/AZK forces

f. Indian Spring Offensive : The Indians held onto Jhanger against numerous counterattacks from the AZK, who were increasingly supported by regular Pakistani Forces. In the Kashmir Valley the Indians attacked, recapturing Tithwail. The AZK made good progress in the High Himalayas sector, infiltrating troops to bring Leh under siege, capturing Kargil and defeating a relief column heading for Skardu.
g. Operations Gulab and Erase : The Indians continued to attack in the Kashmir Valley sector driving north to capture Keran and Gurais. They also repelled a counterattack aimed at Tithwail. In the Punch Valley the forces besieged in Punch broke out and temporarily linked up with the outside world again. The Kashmir State army was able to defend Skardu from the Gilgit Scouts and thus they were not able to proceed down the Indus valley towards Leh. In August the Chitral Forces under Mata-ul-Mulk besieged Skardu and with the help of artillery were able to take Skardu. This freed the Gilgit Scouts to push further into Ladakh.
h. Operation Duck : During this time the front began to settle down with less activity by either side, the only major event was an unsuccessful attack by the Indians towards Dras (Operation Duck). The siege of Punch continued.

i. Operation Easy ; Punch link-up : The Indians now started to get the upper hand in all sectors. Punch was finally relieved after a siege of over a year. The Gilgit forces in the High Himalayas, who had previously made good progress, were finally defeated. The Indians pursued as far as Kargil before being forced to halt due to supply problems. The Zoji-La pass was forced by using tanks (which had not been thought possible at that altitude) and Dras was recaptured. The use of tanks was based on experience gained in Burma in 1945.

j. Moves up to cease-fire : At this stage Indian Prime Minister Mr. Jawahar Lal Nehru decided to ask UN to intervene. A UN cease-fire was arranged for the 31 December 1948. A few days before the cease-fire the Pakistanis launched a counter attack, which cut the road between Uri and Punch. After protracted negotiations a cease-fire was agreed to by both countries, which came into effect. The terms of the cease-fire as laid out in the UNCIP[12] of August 13, 1948 were adopted by the UN on January 5, 1949. This required Pakistan to withdraw its forces, both regular and irregular, while allowing India to maintain minimum strength of its forces in the state to preserve law and order. On compliance of these conditions a plebiscite was to be held to determine the future of the territory. In all, 1,500 soldiers died on each side during the war[13] and Pakistan was able to acquire roughly two-fifths of Kashmir while India maintained the remaining three fifths of Kashmir, including the most populous and fertile regions.

Read More



People in India are looking forward to more information, faster data access and multimedia services through their mobile phones. 3G technology is here to turn this dream into reality. It’s a technology anxiously awaited by telecom operations and subscribers in India.

How long do we have to wait?

Not very long! India is all set to launch 3G mobile telephone services by october 2008 first in four indian metros.

According to Telecom Regulatory Authority of India chairman Nripendra Misra, a total of 32.5 MHz is available for allocation within the next 6-9 months.

Trai has also recommended auctioning 200 MHz for broadband wireless access services like Wimax (worldwide interoperability for microwave access) and has proposed a national frequency management board to oversee spectrum availability and its efficient use.

He hopes that the allocated spectrum would be enough for the next two years and said Trai would recommend freeing up more spectrum for those who lose out in this auction.

So what is 3G spectrum all about?

What is spectrum?

Radio frequency (RF) is a frequency or rate of oscillation within the range of about 3 Hz to 300 GHz. This range corresponds to frequency of alternating current electrical signals used to produce and detect radio waves. Since most of this range is beyond the vibration rate that most mechanical systems can respond to, RF usually refers to oscillations in electrical circuits or electromagnetic radiation.

How is 3G different from 2G and 4G?

While 2G stands for second-generation wireless telephone technology, 1G networks used are analog, 2G networks are digital and 3G (third-generation) technology is used to enhance mobile phone standards.

3G helps to simultaneously transfer both voice data (a telephone call) and non-voice data (such as downloading information, exchanging e-mail, and instant messaging. The highlight of 3G is video telephony. 4G technology stands to be the future standard of wireless devices.

Currently, Japanese company NTT DoCoMo and Samsung are testing 4G communication.

How will 3G services help you?

3G services will enable video broadcast and data-intensive services such as stock transactions, e-learning and telemedicine through wireless communications

All telecom operators are waiting to launch 3G in India to cash in on revenues by providing high-end services to customers, which are voice data and video enabled. India lags behind many Asian countries in introducing 3G services.

What is Trai’s recommendation on 3G pricing?

The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India has recommended auctioning radio frequencies for 3G telecom services at a reserve price of Rs 1,050 crore (Rs 10.50 billion) to companies seeking to offer nationwide high-speed Internet and streaming video.

The base price for spectrum in cities like Mumbai and Delhi and Category A telecom circles is Rs 120 crore (Rs 1200 million); in cities like Chennai and Kolkata and Category B circles Rs 80 crore (Rs 800 million); and in all other cities Rs 15 crore (Rs 150 million).

What are the frequency bands and quota for CDMA?

Trai has recommended three sets of frequency bands – 450 mhz, 800 mhz and 2.1 ghz. For CDMA players like Reliance [Get Quote] and Tata Teleservices 1.25 MHz each is offered. CDMA operators are free to bid both in the 2.1 GHz and the 450 MHz bands, but they will be allocated spectrum only in one. The pricing of these two bands is linked to the auction in the 2.1 GHz band.

CDMA operators will pay the same as the second-highest GSM bidder. And if there is more than one claimant in the 450 MHz band, the reserve price will be half of that arrived at in the 2.1 GHz band. Another rider is that if the highest bid is a quarter more than the lowest, the lowest bidder has to raise its bid to 75 per cent of the winning bid.

But CDMA operators are likely to face problems. Operating 3G services on 450 MHz is a problem because we they do not have dual-band phones that work both in 450 MHz and in 800 MHz (the band in which CDMA operates in India).

What are the issues regarding 3G for providers and users?

3G has successfully been introduced in Europe. But several issues continue to hamper its growth.

High spectrum licensing fees for the 3G services

Huge capital required to build infrastructure for 3G services.

Health impact of electromagnetic waves.

Prices are very high for 3G mobile services.

Will 2G users switch to 3G services.

Takes time to catch up as the service is new.

What are the issues regarding 3G pricing?

Pricing has been a cause of concern. Spectrum auctions ran into billions of euros in Europe. In Europe, spectrum licensing fees were collected years before the 3G service was developed and it required huge investments to build 3G networks, hitting mobile operators’ margins.

However, in Japan and South Korea, spectrum licensing fees were not applicable as the focus of these countries were national IT infrastructure development.

Which companies have applied for 3G license?

3G spectrum has been provided to GSM players like BSNL, MTNL, Bharti, and Vodafone and some international companies have also shown intrest to carry out an interface check on a non-commercial basis ahead of the start of 3G mobile services.

Trial spectrum has been given for a period of one month. This will be only 1/1000th of the actual 3G spectrum capability. Apart frm PSU majors, spectrum for carrying out 3G trials has been given to all those who have applied under the National Frequency Allocation Plan on the 2.1 GHz band. GSM players operate on 900 MHz and 1,800 MHz, while CDMA players operate on 800 MHz.

What is the pricing issue in India?

While Tatas have welcomed Trai’s Rs 1,400-crore (Rs 14 billion) base price for a nationwide rollout of 3G services, the rest of the players find the price too exorbitant.

Bharti-Airtel is disappointed with the pricing as they were expecting it to be Rs 300-400 crore (Rs 3-4 billion). The reserve price is a disincentive for telecom companies in India. Bharti has appealed to lower the prices specially for rural penetration.

The Cellular Operators Association of India and the Association of Unified Service Providers of India are studying TRAI’s recommendations and have not given their comments.

However, Trai chairman Nripendra Misra has said that there is no reason to worry as players will not bid exorbitantly and derail the auction. Misra said telecom operators had matured from their experiences and global developments, and would bid sincerely.

What about the security in a 3G network?

3G networks offer a greater degree of security than 2G predecessors. By allowing the UE to authenticate the network it is attaching to, the user can be sure the network is the intended one and not an impersonator. 3G networks use the KASUMI block crypto instead of the older A5/1 stream cipher. However, a number of serious weaknesses in the KASUMI cipher have been identified.

In addition to the 3G network infrastructure security, end to end security is offered when application frameworks such as IMS are accessed, although this is not strictly a 3G property.

Where was 3G spectrum first introduced?

Japan was the first country to introduce 3G on a large commercial scale. In 2005, about 40 per cent of subscribers used only 3G networks. It is expected that during 2006 the subscribers would move from 2G to 3G and upgrade to the next 3.5 G level.

The success of 3G in Japan also shows that video telephony was the killer application for 3G networks. Downloading music was the biggest draw in 3G services.

In how many countries does 3G exist?

There are about 60 3G networks across 25 countries . In Asia, Europe and the USA, telecom firms use WCDMA technology. The WCDMA standard provides seamless global evolution from today’s GSM with support of the worlds’ largest mobile operators.

WCDMA technology is built on open standards, wide ranging mobile multimedia possibility, and vast potential economies of scale with the support of around 100 terminal designs to operate 3G mobile networks.

3G services were introduced in Europe in 2003.
What speed we can expect?

It is often suggested by industry sources that 3G can be expected to provide 384 kbit/s at or below pedestrian speeds, but only 128 kbit/s in a moving car.


There are lot of talks about 1 2 3 Agreement between India & USA and it almost led to the topple of Central Government.Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement is the name commonly attributed to a bilateral agreement on nuclear cooperation between the United States of America and the Republic of India. The framework for this agreement was a Joint Statement by Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and U.S. President George Bush, under which India agreed to separate its civil and military nuclear facilities and place its civil facilities under IAEA safeguards and, in exchange, the United States agreed to work toward full civil nucleear cooperation with India.Reason for taking Nuclear deal Signatories to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) are granted access to civilian nuclear technology from each other as well as nuclear fuel via the Nuclear Suppliers Group in exchange for International Atomic Energy Agency-verified compliance of the NPT tenets. India, Israel, and Pakistan, however, have not signed the NPT, arguing that instead of addressing the central objective of universal and comprehensive non-proliferation, the treaty creates a club of “nuclear haves” and a larger group of “nuclear have-nots” by restricting the legal possession of nuclear weapons to those states that tested them before 1967, who alone are free to possess and multiply their nuclear stockpiles.India insists on a comprehensive action plan for a nuclear-free world within a specific time-frame and has also adopted a voluntary “no first use policy”.
In response to a growing Chinese nuclear arsenal, India conducted a nuclear test in 1974 (called “peaceful nuclear explosion” and explicitly not for “offensive” first strike military purposes but which could be used as a “peaceful deterrence”). Led by the US, other nations set up an informal group, the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), to control exports of nuclear materials, equipment and technology. As a result, India was relegated to a pariah status within the international nuclear order. India conducted 5 more nuclear tests in May, 1998 at Pokhran.What is 123 Agreement?This is called 123 Agreement because this comes under USA’s Atomic Power Act Section 123.Let’s see how India’s (Indians?) Sovereinty & Independence are pledged…(1) After this Agreement USA will supply all fuel, machinery / equipment & technology to India for producing Nuclear Power.(2) All these days from about 22 Nuclear Power Plants, India is producing power as well as Atom. It’s a high security / secret that from where which is produced, how much is produced, where it is supplied, what research is being done with that, etc. to anybody. But if we sign this Agreement, we have to disclose these secrets and also agree to 14 of our Nuclear Power Plants to be under the scanner of International Atomic Power Organisation.
(3) The fuel utilised to produce Atomic Power can be recycled for reuseand this plant will be under direct supervision of IAPO.If India does nuclear test, this agreement gets cancelled. But(1) USA will take back all the machinery / equipments / technology supplied to India thus far.

(2) Those 14 plants will continue to be under scanner irrespective of the status of the agreement.On the other hand, if any of the commitments given by USA is breached by them, then there is no clause for cancelling this agreement.

Why this aggrement is facing opposition in india?Although many mainstream political parties including the Indian National Congress support the deal along with regional parties like Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and Rashtriya Janata Dal its realisation has run into difficulties in the face of stiff political opposition in India. Also, in November 2007, former Indian Military chiefs, bureaucrats and scientists drafted a letter to Members of Parliament expressing their support for the deal. However, opposition and criticism continued at political levels. The Samajwadi Party (SP) which was with the Left Front in opposing the deal changed its stand after discussing with ex-president of India and nuclear scientist Dr A P J Abdul Kalam. Now SP is in support of the government and the deal. Indian Government survived a vote of confidence by 275-256 after communists withdrew their support to the government over this dispute.Bharatiya Janata PartyThe main opposition party BJP which laid the groundwork for the deal criticized the deal saying that the deal in its present form was unacceptable to BJP and wanted the deal renegotiated. The BJP the current main opposition party in the Indian parliament has asked the government not to accept the deal without a vote in the parliament. However, the government remained steadfast on its commitment to the deal and has refused to back down on the agreement, leading to the possibility of mid-term elections in India. 81 year old veteran BJP leader Lal Krishna Advani, in a statement to the Indian Express newspaper, seemed to indicate willingness to support the government provided some legislative measures.However his party refused to follow that line and stuck to its earlier stand.

Left FrontThe primary opposition to the Nuclear deal in India, however, comes from the Communist Party of India (Marxist) and its parliamentary allies (CPI, RSP, AIFB) November 17 the left parties had provisionally agreed to let the government initiate talks with the IAEA for India specific safeguards which indicated that they may support.The CPI(M), an external parliamentary supporter of government as it stipulates conditions that in some areas are more severe than the clauses in either the NPT or the CTBT. The left front formally removed the support to UPA-led government on July 8.OthersIn 2006, some Indian ex-nuclear scientists had written an appeal to Indian Members of Parliament to ensure that “decisions taken today do not inhibit India’s future ability to develop and pursue nuclear technologies for the benefit of the nation”. United Nationalist Progressive Alliance (UNPA)The UNPA was divided over support of the nuclear deal. While the SP supported it after consultations with Abdul Kalam, the other members of the UNPA led by the TDP opposed it saying that the deal is against India’s interest. The SP was eventually suspended from the UNPA.

Bahujan Samaj PartyThe BSP also opposed the nuclear deal, saying that it was anti-muslim. The party joined hands with the Left Front and the TDP in voting against the government in Parliament on the nuclear deal. The IAEA approvalThe IAEA Board of Governors approved the safeguards agreement on August 1st 2008, and now the 45-nation Nuclear Suppliers Group must approve a policy allowing nuclear cooperation with India before President Bush can make the necessary certifications and seek final approval by the U.S. Congress. There were objections from Iran, Ireland, Norway, Switzerland and Austria at the IAEA meeting

Requirement of PowerThe most important requirement for India’s Economic Growth in the coming years will be the power & nfrastructure. The argument put forth favouring the 123 Agreement says that we need Nuclear Power Production to be increased to meet the demand.
Power Production in India Presently following are the figures:Thermal Power66%Hydel Power26%Solar & Wind Power5% – Presently Rs.600 Crores are spent for producing this power.Nuclear Power3% – If this is to be increased to 6%, it requires additional Rs.50,000 Crores.

Naturally it will be wise to increase other 3 modes of power production rather than the expensive & dangerous Nuclear Power. Isn’t??URANIUMWe used to import Uranium from various other countries.After the Pokran Test,we are not getting it.To augment the supply,we need to sign the 123 Agreement to get Uranium from USA.Bt we ill have to declare to USA from which power plant India takes raw material for producing Atom Bomb.Why should we disclose our internal secrets to those rascals? Will any one allow an outsider to continuously monitor what’s happening in your Hall & Kitchen of your house?Other study reveals that Uranium is available in India aplenty.
{ To read more on the topic see the article BURNING INDO – US NUCLEAR DEAL on the right side }


Chardrayaan-1 is the first Indian Mission to the Moon devoted to high-resolution remote sensing of the lunar surface features in visible, near infrared, X-ray and low energy gamma ray regions. This will be accomplished using several payloads already selected for the mission. In addition a total of about 10 kg payload weight and 10 W power are earmarked for proposals, which are now solicited. The mission is proposed to be a lunar polar orbiter at an altitude of about 100 km and is planned to be launched by october 2008 using indigenous spacecraft and launch vehicle of ISRO. The mission is expected to have an operational life of about 2 years.
Continue reading


In an encounter with the terrorists, Delhi police has killedTwo out of three terrorists. Other hiding terrorists in the building managed to escape. In this shooting two policemen were injured.This encounter between police and terrorists took place in Jamia Nagar today morning in Delhi.About 150 police men along with NSG persons performed the action. The Area has been sealed and the state boundaries with DELHI has also been sealed.One terrorist was caught and police is interrogating him.

India Set Another Milestone – ASTRA

India on Saturday successfully test fired the Astra, which is an active radar homing Beyond Visual Range Air-To-Air Missile (BVRAAM), from the integrated test range (ITR) at Chandipur in Orissa.

Chandipur (Orissa), Sept 13 : India on Saturday successfully test fired the ‘Astra’, which is an active radar homing Beyond Visual Range Air-To-Air Missile (BVRAAM), from the integrated test range (ITR) at Chandipur in Orissa.

The ‘Astra’ missile was test-fired from a launcher in the launch pad number 2 of the ITR complex at about 12:05 p.m., defence sources said.
Continue reading