INDIA – PAKISTAN WARS And lessons Learned By PAKISTAN

Since their sepration in 1947 India and Pakistan have fought many wars ; sometime bigger and many time smaller.

All these wars have created a bitterness in their relations and a situation of Cold war is prevailing.

Lets have an idea of the wars fought between them and what both the nations have learned.

THE KASHMIR WAR (  October 21, 1947 – December 31, 1948 )

1. The Kashmir conflict refers to the territorial dispute between India and Pakistan (and between India and the People’s Republic of China) over Kashmir, the northwesternmost region of the Indian subcontinent.

2.The main issue between india and pakistan was the entire erstwhile Dogra princely state of Jammu and Kashmir.Offically India says Kashmir is an “integral part” of India,while the official stated stance of Pakistan is that Kashmir is a disputed territory whose final status can only be determined by the Kashmiri people.

3. REASON –

In 1947, the British dominion of India came to an end with the creation of two new nations, India and Pakistan. Each of the 562 Indian princely statesIndia or the Dominion of Pakistan. Jammu and Kashmir had a predominantly Muslim population but a Hindu ruler, and was the largest of these autonomous states and bordered both modern countries. Its ruler was the Dogra King (or Maharaja) Hari Singh. Hari Singh preferred to remain independent and sought to avoid the stress placed on him by either India and Pakistan by playing each against the other. joined one of the two new nations: the Union of

In October 1947, Pakistani tribalsentered Kashmir with the hope to liberate it from Dogra rule. The state forces were not able to withstand the invasion and the Maharaja signed The Instrument of Accession that was accepted by the Government of India on October 27, 1947.

4.This war has been split into ten stages by time. The individual stages are detailed below.

a. Initial invasion (Operation Gulmarg) :

The objective of the initial invasion was to capture control of the Kashmir valley including its principal city, Srinagar, the summer capital of the state (Jammu being the winter capital). The state forces stationed in the border regions around Muzzafrabad and Domel were quickly defeated by AZK forces (some state forces mutinied and joined the AZK) and the way to the capital was open. Rather than advancing toward Srinagar before state forces could regroup or be reinforced, the invading forces remained in the captured cities in the border region engaging in looting and other crimes against their inhabitants.The conflict was mired by acts of sabotage, arsonrape and other crimes committed against the native Kashmiris by Pakistani-backed tribals.In the Punch valley, the state forces retreated into towns where they were besieged. and

b. Indian defence of the Kashmir Valley:

After the accession, India airlifted troops and equipment to Srinagar, where they reinforced the princely state forces, established a defense perimeter and defeated the AZK forces on the outskirts of the city. The successful defence included an outflanking manoeuvre by Indian armoured cars. The defeated AZK forces were pursued as far as Baramula and Uri and these towns were recaptured.

In the Punch valley, AZK forces continued to besiege state forces.

In Gilgit, the state paramilitary forces (the Gilgit Scouts) joined the invading AZK forces, who thereby obtained control of this northern region of the state. The AZK forces were also joined by troops from Chitral, whose ruler, the Mehtar of Chitral, had acceded to Pakistan.

c. Attempted link-up at Punch Indian forces ceased pursuit of AZK forces after recapturing Uri and Baramula, and sent a relief column southwards, in an attempt to relieve Punch. Although the relief column eventually reached Punch, the siege could not be lifted. A second relief column reached Kotli, but was forced to evacuate its garrison. Meanwhile, Mirpur was captured by AZK forces and many of its inhabitants, particularly the Hindus, were killed.

d. Fall of Jhanger and attacks on Naoshera and Uri : The Pakistani/AZK forces attacked and captured Jhanger. They then attacked Naoshera unsuccessfully. Other Pakistani/AZK forces made a series of unsuccessful attacks on Uri. In the south a minor Indian attack secured Chamb. By this stage of the war the front line began to stabilise as more Indian troops became available

e. Operation Vijay: counterattack to Jhanger : The Indian forces launched a counterattack in the south recapturing Jhanger and Rajauri. In the Kashmir Valley the Pakistani/AZK forces continued attacking the Uri garrison. In the north Skardu was brought under siege by Pakistani/AZK forces

f. Indian Spring Offensive : The Indians held onto Jhanger against numerous counterattacks from the AZK, who were increasingly supported by regular Pakistani Forces. In the Kashmir Valley the Indians attacked, recapturing Tithwail. The AZK made good progress in the High Himalayas sector, infiltrating troops to bring Leh under siege, capturing Kargil and defeating a relief column heading for Skardu.
g. Operations Gulab and Erase : The Indians continued to attack in the Kashmir Valley sector driving north to capture Keran and Gurais. They also repelled a counterattack aimed at Tithwail. In the Punch Valley the forces besieged in Punch broke out and temporarily linked up with the outside world again. The Kashmir State army was able to defend Skardu from the Gilgit Scouts and thus they were not able to proceed down the Indus valley towards Leh. In August the Chitral Forces under Mata-ul-Mulk besieged Skardu and with the help of artillery were able to take Skardu. This freed the Gilgit Scouts to push further into Ladakh.
h. Operation Duck : During this time the front began to settle down with less activity by either side, the only major event was an unsuccessful attack by the Indians towards Dras (Operation Duck). The siege of Punch continued.

i. Operation Easy ; Punch link-up : The Indians now started to get the upper hand in all sectors. Punch was finally relieved after a siege of over a year. The Gilgit forces in the High Himalayas, who had previously made good progress, were finally defeated. The Indians pursued as far as Kargil before being forced to halt due to supply problems. The Zoji-La pass was forced by using tanks (which had not been thought possible at that altitude) and Dras was recaptured. The use of tanks was based on experience gained in Burma in 1945.

j. Moves up to cease-fire : At this stage Indian Prime Minister Mr. Jawahar Lal Nehru decided to ask UN to intervene. A UN cease-fire was arranged for the 31 December 1948. A few days before the cease-fire the Pakistanis launched a counter attack, which cut the road between Uri and Punch. After protracted negotiations a cease-fire was agreed to by both countries, which came into effect. The terms of the cease-fire as laid out in the UNCIP[12] of August 13, 1948 were adopted by the UN on January 5, 1949. This required Pakistan to withdraw its forces, both regular and irregular, while allowing India to maintain minimum strength of its forces in the state to preserve law and order. On compliance of these conditions a plebiscite was to be held to determine the future of the territory. In all, 1,500 soldiers died on each side during the war[13] and Pakistan was able to acquire roughly two-fifths of Kashmir while India maintained the remaining three fifths of Kashmir, including the most populous and fertile regions.

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